Le 06 Mai 1853, les premiers Indiens arrivaient en
Martinique  : un pan de l'histoire occulté...

Martiniquaise d'origine indienne,  Christiane
SACARABANI était dans l'urgence de l'ecriture pour
honorer ses ancêtres.

"L'INDIEN ACouverturedevantdelindU SANG NOIR " :
un droit de mémoire romancé,
auto-édité en 2003,
et réedité en 2004.



  Indo-Caribbean Writers

      Many oblique attempts have been made to marginalize Indians in (Guyana) in terms of their contribution to the literary culture in the macro Caribbean milieu.

      Several times, prominent personalities have similarly made sniping remarks in the Caribbean with the same kind of snide message.

      In a more covert manner in the USA, whether intentional or otherwise, organizations, radio, television and colleges are portraying the Caribbean people as Blacks with only an African culture.

     Examples on the internet http://caribbeanvoice.com/org.htm, on television Caribbean Classroom, Caribbean Dancehall, and others.

      Within the Caribbean the "others" are being constantly bombarded with cultural indignity and identity insults brought about by being declared invisible people.

      The perception that is inculcated is real, and denies the reality that the Caribbean is plural in make-up, having people who are Amerindians, Chinese, Portuguese, Whites, Indians and Mixed.

      While it is indeed true that Blacks predominate in the overall Caribbean landscape, it is however a fact that in Guyana, Suriname and Trinidad there is a majority of Indians in the population.

      For historical reason (that is obvious), Blacks got a head start in the education system, and eventually became the police, civil servants, teachers and professionals. But in the course of time, other peoples found niches within these spheres of activities.

      And this must be recognized as a matter of fact, rather than tangentially denied.

      As an example, why is it that in a review by Stewart Brown in the Globe and Mail of "All Are Involved: The Art of Martin Carter" many poets, writers, and authors from the Caribbean are listed, and only one Indian (David Dabydeen) mentioned and given recognition?

       The others are :

        Aimé Césaire, Derek Walcott, Nicholas Guillen, John Agard, Kamau Brathwaite, Stewart Brown, Fred D'Aguiar, Kwame Dawes, Michael Gilkes, Wilson Harris, Roy Heath, Kendel Hippolyte, Louis James, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Eusi Kwayana, George Lamming, Ian McDonald, Mark McWatt, Mervyn Morris, Grace Nichols, Gordon Rohlehr, Andew Salkey.

       While these individuals are quite worthy, surely there should be at least gracious mention of the many other Caribbean personalities in literature. Are there no other Indians in the Caribbean?

       Is David Dabydeen the 'token' Indian? Does the reviewer not know of the many Indians who are well recognized and documented in the field of literature?

       Something is amiss here!

      Thus it is that the compilation of the Indo-Caribbean writers is being motivated (as one aspect of the Indo-Caribbean Arts & Culture Workshop Series, a collaboration between the Association of Artists & Writers, Inc. and The Rajkmuari Cultural Center, New York) to draw attention.

      The project aims to document Indo-Caribbean poets/writers/authors, as well as work about the Indo-Caribbeans. Articles in newspapers, magazines and learned journals are not considered at this time. Obviously, these will be too numerous.

      The list is not complete and will continue to be a work in progress. There are several shortcomings, namely, inaccuracy of publishers and dates of publication but these are being regularly revised.

      Your input for updates are welcome.

      Thank you

      Gary Girdhari

      ADAMSON, A.H.
      Sugar without Slaves. The Political Economy of British Guiana, 1838-1904. New Haven & London: Yale Univ, 1972.

      ALI, Edwin: Guyana/America
      The Rise of the Phoenix in Guyana's Turbulent Politics. Printed in the USA. 1997

      ALI, Edwin: Guyana/America
      Muslims in America After the Catastrophic Tragedy of 9/11. Printed in the USA. 2002.

      ALI, Riad Trinidad & Tobago
      A Distant Amber. Self-published. Freeport, 1993.

      ARJUNE, Frank, Guyana/America
      The Guyana Exodus. Carlton Press, 1995

      AUTAR, Seori, Guyana/America, Poet and Writer

      BACCHUS, M. K.: Guyana/Canada
      Education for Development or Underdevelopment? Guyana's Educational System and its Implications for the Third World. Ontario, Canada: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 1980.

      BAKSH, Ishmael Trinidad & Tobago
      Black Light. Self-published. Canada, 1989.

      BALDEOSINGH, Kevin Trinidad & Tobago, novelist, critic and Chief Judge of the Commonwealth Prize for Literature

     The Autobiography of Paras P.

     Paras P. is the most correct person in Trinidad & Tobago, shown by the popularity of his Centre of Correctness. This candid autobiography illustrates how Paras' whole life has been geared to being "proper," from early days learning the Queen's English to life as the most upright of politicians. Pity that Paras never noticed the laughter and ridicule permeating all the tapes he has of his doings... Full of wit and wisdom, The Autobiography of Paras P. is a tongue-in-cheek glimpse into the life of one man who honestly believes he is the last bastion of morality in Trinidad & Tobago. (Heinemann blurb) Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.

      BALKARAN, Lal, Guyana/Canada
      - Managerial Control Techniques. Chartered Institute of Management Accountants: London, 1989
      - Professional Accounting and Business Programmes: Effective Study and Examination Techniques. LBA Publications: Toronto, 1995, Revised 1999
      - Handbook of Global Professional Accounting Programmes. LBA Publications: Toronto, 1996
      - Directory of Global Professional Accounting and Business Certification Programmes. LBA Publications: Toronto, 1996, Revised 2001
      - Handbook of Global Professional Business Programmes. LBA Publications: Toronto, 1997
      - Accountants and Related Professionals; Reciprocal Memberships and Peer Acceptance. LBA Publications: Toronto, 1997
      - Through Faith & Luck: The Story of an East Indian Family in Guyana. LBA Publication: Toronto. 1999. www.lbapublications.com
      - Dictionary of the Guyanese Amerindians and other South American Native Terms. LBA Publications: Toronto, 2002
      - Bibliography of Guyana & Guyanese Writers, 1596-2004. LBA Publications, Toronto. 2004

      The New Slavery: An Account of the Indian and Chinese Immigrants in British Guiana. London. 1897

      Bereton, Bridget and Winston Dookeran (ed.)
      East Indians in the Caribbean: Colonialism and the Struggle for Identity. Kraus, New York, 1982

      BHAGIRATHEE, Jang B. Trinidad & Tobago/America
      Let's Go Trinidad. A historical novel. New York. 2003

      BHAGWANDIN, Balwant, Guyana/America
      - Wild Flowers. IUniverse, Inc. 2001
      - I hear guyana cry. iUniverse. 2003

      BHAGWANDIN, Dhanraj, Guyana/America
      Georgetown Spies. Inside Pub. 1995

      BIRBALSINGH, Frank Guyana/Canada
      - Indo-West Indian Cricketers. Hansib. 1988. (with Clem Seecharran)
      - Passion and Exile: Essays in Caribbean Literature. [London: Hansib, 1988].
      - Jahaji Bhai - An anthology of Indo-Caribbean Literature. (Editor) Toronto: TSAR, 1988.
      -Indenture and Exile: The Indo-Caribbean Experience. (Editor) Toronto: TSAR, 1989.
      - Frontiers of Caribbean Literature in English. (Editor) New York: St. Martins Press. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1996
      - Indo-Caribbean Resistance. TSAR. Toronto, 1993
      - Novels and the Nation: Essays in Canadian Literature. TSAR, Toronto, 1995
      - The Rise of West Indian Cricket: From Colony to Nation. Hansib, London, 1996
      - From Pillar to Post: the Indo-Caribbean Diaspora. Toronto: TSAR, 1997

      BISNAUTH, Dale, Guyana
      The Settlement of Indians in Guyana 1890-1930. Paperback (January 2001). Peepal Tree Pr Ltd; ISBN: 1900715163

      BISSOONDATH, Neil Trinidad & Tobago/Canada
      .Neil Bissoondath was born in Arima, Trinidad & Tobago, in 1955 and emigrated to Canada in 1973. He is the nephew of V.S. Naipaul and the late Shiva Naipaul.
      .Digging Up the Mountains. (Stories) Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1985. [New York] Viking [1986].
      .A Casual Brutality. Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1988. London: Bloomsbury, 1988. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1989.
      .On the Eve of Uncertain Tomorrows. (Stories) Toronto: Lester & Orpen Dennys, 1990. New York: Clarkson N. Potter, 1991.
      .The Innocence of Age. Toronto: Knopf, 1992.
      vSelling Illusions: The Cult of Multi-Culturalism in Canada. Toronto: Penguin, 1994.

      BISSUNDYAL, Churaumanie Guyana/America, Novelist, poet, playwright and critic; winner of the Vera Rubin Residency Award.
      - Whom the Kiskadees Call. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree, 1994.
      - Labaria Puraan, Paddy Sheaves Books. Georgetown. 1995.
      - The Game of Kassaku. GEICA. New York. 2002.
      - The Players of Kasaku. Unpublished.Completed. 2002. New York
      - The Drums of Kassaku. Unpublished. Completed. 2002. New York
      - Glorianna, Self Published. 1976
      - The Cleavage. Self Published. 1986
      - The Presence. A Roopnandan Singh Publication. Georgetown. 1997
      - The Ritual. Paddy Sheaves Books. New York. 2000
      - Lotus in the Mud. Paddy Sheaves Books. 2000
      - Trick and The Rajah. Guyana. 1986
      - From Ganges to Demerary. Guyana. 1988.
      - Migrant Error. Guyana. 1989.
      - I is a Jumbie. Guyana. 1989
      - Mad No Hell. Guyana. 1990
      - Hello Eldorado. Guyana. 1990
      - Disco Dulahin. Guyana. 1990.
      - Brooklyn Raani. Guyana. 1990
      - From Palos to Guanahani. Guyana. 1991
      - The Ritual, Paddy Sheaves Books. New York. 2000

      BOODHOO, I.J. (Isaiah James) Trinidad & Tobago
      Between Two Seasons. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1994.

      Camacho-Gingerich,Alina (ed): USA
      Coping in America: The Case of Caribbean East Indians. GEICA, New York.2002

      Chinapen, Jacob W; Guyana, Guyanese poet
      Albion Wilds

      Clark, Colin
      East Indians in a West Indian Town, San Fernando, Trinidad 1930-1970. Allen and Unwin. London. 1986

      DABYDEEN, Cyril Guyana/Canada, poet and novelist since in the seventies; poet laureate at the University of Ottawa
      - Poems in Recession. 1972.
      - Distances. (Poems) [Vancouver] Fiddlehead Poetry Books, 1977.
      - Goatsong. (Poems) Ontario: Mosaic Press/Valley Editions, 1977.
      - Heart's Frame. (Poems) 1977.
      - This Planet Earth. (Poems) 1979.
      - Still Close to the Island. (Poems & Stories) Ottawa: Commoner's Publishing, 1980.
      - Elephants Make Good Stepladders. (Poems) Ontario: Third Eye, 1982.
      - Islands Lovelier Than a Vision. (Poems) Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1986.
      - Glass Forehead. Vesta Publications, 1987.
      - A Shapely Fire: Changing the Literary Landscape. Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1988.
      - To Monkey Jungle. (Short stories) Ontario: Third Eye, 1988.
      - Coastland. (Poems) 1989.
      - Dark Swirl. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1989.
      - The Wizard Swami. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1989.
      - Jogging in Havana. (Short stories) Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1992.
      - Sometimes Hard. London: Longman, 1994.
      - Born in Amazonia. (Poems) Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1995.
      - Berbice Crossing and Other Stories. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1996.
      - Stoning the Wind. (Poems) Toronto: TSAR, ????.
      - Black Jesus and Other Stories. Toronto: TSAR, 1996. Inbook, 1997. (Paperback)
      - My Brahmin Days and Other Stories. Toronto: TSAR, 2000.
      - North of the Equator. Beach Holme Pub. 2001
      - DRUMS OF MY FLESH. TSAR Publications. 2005

      DABYDEEN, David Guyana, poet and novelist; winner of the Commonwealth Prize for Literature; winner of the Guyana Prize for Literature
      - Slave Song. (Poems) Dangaroo Press, 1984.
      - Coolie Odyssey. (Poems) Hansib, London. 1988
      - Handbook for Teaching Caribbean Literature. Heinemann, 1988.
      - A Reader's Guide to West Indian and Black British Literature. Hansib, ???? Dangaroo Press, ????
      - The Intended. (Novel) London: Secker & Warberg, 1991.
      - Disappearance. London: Secker & Warberg, 1993.
      - The Counting House. London: Secker & Warburg, 1996.

      DABYDEEN, David and Brinsley SAMAROO (ed.)
      Across the Dark Waters. Ethnicity and Indian Identity in the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1996

      DABYDEEN, David and SAMAROO, B. (eds), Guyana & Trinidad
      Indian in the Caribbean. Hansib. London. 1987

      DABYDEEN, Sally Ramage, Guyana/UK
      - UK Steel Industry & International Trade (2004), iUniverse Publishers.
      - Civil Liberties in England and Wales (2004), iUniverse Publishers.
      - Legal and Regulatory Framework for Business in the UK (2004), iUniverse Publishers.
      - An Introduction to Intellectual Property (2004), iUniverse Publishers.

      DAS, Mahadai: Guyana, poet since in the seventies

      DEODANDAN, Raywat: fiction writer, winner of the guyana prize for literature

      DEPOO, T. (Ed): Guyana
      The East Indian Diaspora. New York. 1993

      DONNELL, Alison
      Twentieth-Century Caribbean Literature. Routledge. 2006

      DOODNATH, Samuel, Trinidad & Tobago
      - From India to Trinidad & Tobago: Asha kidnapped. Self-published. San Fernando, 1987.
      - Santiago and Kumar: first love fulfilled. Self-published. Siparia, 1989.

      DYAL, Karr, Guyana/America
      Sculptures, Paintings and Drawings. 2000

      EHRLICH, Allen S.
      East Indian cane Workers in Jamaica. PhD Thesis. University of Michigan. Ann Arbor. 1970

      ESPINET, Ramabai, Trinidad & Tobago/Canada
      The Swinging Bridge. A Novel. Harper/Phyllis Bruce Book. 2003

      GIBSON, Kean, Guyana
      The Cycle of Racial Oppression in Guyana. Univ. Press of America. 2003

      GIRDHARI, Gary: Guyana, writer and poet
      - Guyana Journal, since 1996 (editor & publisher). New York
      - Education in Guyana with special reference to Science and technology, University of Guyana. 1977
      - Reflections: On Politics, Human Conditions and Good Memories, 1998. New York

      GIRDHARRY, Arnold R: Guyana/America
      1. The Geometry of Marriage in Henry James. Ann Arbour: UMI, 1982.
      2. Marriage for Sale: Three One-Act Plays. New York: Geneva Book, 1984.
      3. Poetry of Psycho-realism. Notre Dame: Foundations, 1984
      4. Country of New England:  A  Collection of Poems. Bristol, IN: Bristol Banner Books, 1991.
      5. The Wounds of Naipaul and the Women of India. Acton, MA: Copley, 2003
      6. An Anthology of Caribbean Literature. Acton, MA: Copley, 2003
      7. Anthology of Caribbean Literature. Second Edition. Acton, MA: Copley, 2006
      8. The Indian and Indo-Guyanese Diaspora: A British Default. Acton, MA: Copley, 2006.

      GOPAL, Madan M., Guyana
      Politics, Race, and Youth in Guyana. Edwin Mellen Press. 1992.

      GOPAUL, Nanda, Guyana
      Resistance and Change. The Struggle of Guyanese Workers (1961-1991) with Emphasis on the Sugar Industry. 1997.
      Inside News Publications Inc., NY.

      GOSINE, Mahin: Trinidad & Tobago/America
      - East Indians and Black Power in the Caribbean: The Case of Trinidad. Africana Research Press, 1986
      - Caribbean East Indians in America: Assimilation, Adaptation and group Experience. New York: Windsor Press. 1990
      - The Coolie Connection (Ed). From the Orient to the Occident. (Ed). Windsor Press. 1992
      - The East Indian Odyssey: Dilemma of a Migrant People. (Ed). Windsor Press. 1994
      - Sojourners to Settlers: Indian Immigrants in the Caribbean and the Americas (with Dhanpaul Narine, eds)

      GOSINE, Mahin, MALIK, Dipak and MAHABIR, Kumar: Trinidad & Tobago/America
      The Legacy of Indian Indenture: 150 Years of East Indians of Trinidad. 1995. 267 pp. ISBN 0-9689-818-74
      This book consists of a wide range of papers on the East Indian presence in Trinidad and to some extant Guyana from a sociological, political, historical and anthropological perspective. The themes include migration, the influence of Madan Mohan Malaviya, Mahatma Gandhi and Cheddi Jagan, Political Pluralism, Hindi, Women Laborers, Indian Culinary Dishes and the Indian use of Marijuana.

      GOSINE, V. Ramsamooj: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Coming of Lights. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1992.

      GYANCHAN, Rayman: Guyana, poet

      HARRIS Wilson

      HASSAN, Dolly Z.: Guyana/America
      V.S. Naipaul and the West Indies

      Hollett, David
      Passage from India to El Dorado : Guyana and the Great Migration. Fairleigh Dickinson Univ Press. December 1999. ISBN: 0838638198

      HOSEIN, Clyde: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Killing of Nelson John and Other Stories. London, Ontario: London Magazine Editions, 1980

      ISHMAEL, Odeen Guyana/America
      - Problems of the Transition of Education in the Third World - The case of Guyana, UMI, Ann Arbor. 1990.
      - Towards Education Reform in Guyana, New Guyana Co., Georgetown, 1993
      - Amerindian Legends of Guyana. Wisconsin: Artex Publishing, 1995.

      ITWARU, Arnold: Guyana/Canada
      Shanti. London: Peepal Tree Press, 1988.

      JAGAN, Cheddi: Guyana
      - The West on Trial. Michael Joseph, 1966 et seq
      - Forbidden Freedom. Hansib, 1954, 1994
      - Race, Class and Nationhood. 1991 (with Moses Nagamootoo)
      - The USA in South America. Hansib. 1998. (Edited by David Dabydeen)
      - The Caribbean: Whose backyard
      - The Caribbean Revolution
      - A New Global Human Order. 2001· Harpy. ISBN 0-9684059-2-4

      JAGAN, Janet: Guyana
      - When Grandpa Cheddi Was a Boy. Leeds: Peepal Tree, 1993.
      - Patricia the Baby Manatee and Other Stories. Leeds: Peepal Tree, 1995.

      JAGAN-BRANCIER, Nadira: Guyana/Canada
      Cheddi Jagan - My Fight For Guyana's Freedom - with reflections on my father

      JAILALL, Peter: Guyana/Canada, a leading Guyanese poet since in the seventies
      - This Healing Place and Other Poems. Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc. 1993
      - Yet Another Home. Toronto: Natural Heritage/Natural History Inc. 1997
      - When September Comes. Natural Heritage. Toronto. 2003

      JENKINS, E.J.:
      The Coolie: His Rights and Wrongs. London. 1871

      KAHALIDEEN, Rosetta: leading Guyanese poet since in the sixties

      KALLICHARRAN, Laxhmie: Guyana, poet, writer
      Hear the Gungrus Sing. Shraadanjali Pub. 1992

      KANHAI, Cyrill: Guyana, leading Guyanese poet since in the fifties.

      KANHAI, Rohan: Guyana/UK
      Blasting for Runs. London: Souvenir Press, 1966.

      KARRAN, Kampta: Guyana, poet, literary critic in the Caribbean

      KEMPADOO, Oonya: Guyana
      Oonya Kempadoo was born in England of Guyanese parents in 1966. She was brought up in Guyana. She has lived in Europe and various islands of the Caribbean. At the time Buxton Spice was published, she was living in Grenada.
      Buxton Spice. London: Phoenix House [1998]. New York: Dutton, 1999.

      KEMPADOO, Peter [pseudonym Lauchmonen]: Guyana
      - Guiana Boy. Crawley: New Literature (Publishing) Ltd., 1960.
      - Old Thom's Harvest. London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1965.

      KHAN, Ismith: Trinidad & Tobago
      - The Jumbie Bird. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1961. London: Longman, 1974. 1985.
      - The Obeah Man. London: Hutchinson, 1964. Toronto: TSAR, 1995.
      - The Crucifixion. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1987.
      - A Day in the Country and Other Stories. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1994.

      KHEMRAJ, Harischandra: Guyana, winner of the Guyana prize for Literature
      Cosmic Dance. Leeds: Peepal Tree, 1994.

      KISSOON, Freddie: Trinidad, playwright since in the sixties

      KLASS, Morton: America
      - East Indians in Trinidad: A study of cultural persistence. New York: Columbia. 1961
      - East Indians in Trinidad. Illinois: Waveland Press. 1988

      KUMAR, Kesh: Guyana/Canada
      the face that smiles and other poems

      LA GUERRE, John Gaffar: Trinidad & Tobago
      - Calcutta to Caroni: The East Indians of Trinidad. New York: Longman. 1974
      - Basdeo Panday: A Political Biography. 2000. ii +272 pp. ISBN 976-8160-82-9
      This study focuses on the early socializing influences on Basdeo Panday, his decision to turn his back on the prospect of an academic career, his plunge into working class politics, and the vicissitudes of his role as a Leader of the Opposition under a Westminster model of government. It also focuses on his various attempts to navigate the ethnic trenches and his ascension to power in 1995 as Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago.

      LADOO, Harold Sonny: Trinidad & Tobago
      Harold Sonny Ladoo was born and brought up in Trinidad & Tobago. He emigrated to Canada where he first published No Pain Like This Body. He died in 1973.
      - No Pain Like This Body.
      Set in a Hindu community in the eastern Caribbean, No Pain Like This Body describes in vivid, unsentimental prose the life of a poor rice-growing family. Their struggle to cope with illness, a drunken and unpredictable father, and the violence of the elements is set against a sharply drawn village community. (Heinemann blurb)
      Toronto: Anansi, 1972.London: Heinemann, 1987.
      - Yesterdays. Toronto: Anansi, 1974.

      Lawrence, K. O. & K. O. Laurence
      A Question of Labour: Indentured Immigration into Trinidad and British Guiana 1875-1917. Palgrave. May 1994.

      MAHABIR, Dennis J.: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Cutlass is not for Killing. New York: Vantage, 1971.

      MAHABIR, Kumar: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Still Cry: Personal Account of the East Indians in Trinidad and Tobago during Indentureship (1845-1917). 1985. 191 pp ISBN 0-91166-03-5. Calaloux Publications. Distributed locally by Chakra.

      The reports of five, surviving ex-indentured immigrant laborers are recorded verbatim to read like an epic poem. A woman, a Madras emigrant, a Muslim, a Brahmin and a cocoa/rubber estate worker narrate the conditions of life in village India when they left, the trauma of crossing the Kala Pani (Black Water), and the experience of adjusting to a new life among strangers under a driver and overseer on the plantation ranges of the New World.

      Medicinal and Edible Plants used by East Indians of Trinidad and Tobago, Chakra Pub. House.1991, 2000. Thin book contains valuable information on sixty-five local plants, each of which is described and given a botanical name. Their medicinal uses include arthritis, diabetes, high blood pressure, headaches, strokes, impotence, sterility, ulcers and skin infections.

      East Indian Women of Trinidad and Tobago: An Annotated Bibliography with Photographs and Ephemera. Chakra Pub. House. 1992. vi + 846 pp. ISBN 976-8012-78-5. This book is lb. first in the Caribbean, which provides information on 236 successful Indian women. 130 carefully chosen photographs, some of which are in color, accompany the 218 annotated references.

      Caribbean East Indian Recipes. Chakra. 1992. Reprinted 2001. 129 pp. ISBN 976-8012-75-7

      This cookbook represents a comprehensive collection of over 70 traditional vegetarian recipes. They have been handed down by indentured immigrants from India by word-of-mouth and practical example for over four generations. From delightful snacks to dinner-party specials - each recipe has been kitchen-tested and, therefore, meets a high standard of accuracy. Some of the dishes are beautifully illustrated in color to tempt your appetite

      MAHABIR, Kumar and MAHABIR, Sita: Trinidad & Tobago
      A Dictionary of Caribbean Trinidad Hindi. 1990. Third Impression 44 pp. Chakra Pub. House.
      This illustrated dictionary contains more than 1200 Indo/Hindi items, which were in common usage in the plural society of Trinidad and Tobago at the time of collection. The items had entered the Trinidad Creole by the process of cultural diffusion.

      MAHARAJ, Ashram B.: Trinidad & Tobago
      Indo-Trinidad & Tobagoian Folk Tales in the Oral Tradition. Beucarro, Trinidad & Tobago: Indian Review Committee, 1990.

      MAHARAJ, Clement: Trinidad & Tobago, died in 1995
      The Dispossessed.
      This first novel grew from the world of indentured sugar plantation workers. Arriving from India in 1917, their labor and the labor of future generations made their island rich but left them poor, far from home, and despised by native islanders. From the guaranteed work on the estates, the laborers were forced to move on, to survive in a hostile world not knowing where the next day's bread would come from. This is the story of their lives, their resilience and their ultimate survival. (Publisher's blurb) Oxford: Heinemann, 1992.

      MAHARAJ, Devant Parsuram: Trinidad & Tobago, Writer and Author. Social, Religious, Political, and Cultural columnist
      Hostile & Recalcitrant: Bhadase Sagan Maharaj. Maha Sabha Publications. 2001. (edited with Ramlakhan, Rajnie and Maharaj, Pundit Bhadase Seetahal.). The Biography and Selected Parliamentary Speeches of the earliest Indian and Hindu Leader in Modern Trinidad & Tobago.
      Tulsi Das 500th Anniversary: A review of Sant Tulsi Das and the impact of the Ramayana in Hindu Trinidad.

      MAHARAJ, Rabindranath: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Writer and his Wife and Other Stories. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1996.
      'Interloper" was shortlisted in the Commonwealth Prize for Literature
      The Lagahoo's Apprentice. Alfred Kpnoff

      MAHESH, Robert: Guyana/America. Author and Poet
      A Pilgrimage to the Place of His Birth in Guyana. 1994

      MALIK, Yogendra: Trinidad & Tobago
      East Indians in Trinidad: A study of minority politics. London and New York: Oxford University Press. 1971

      MANGRU, Basdeo: Guyana
      - Benevolent Neutrality: Indian Government Policy and Labour Migration to British Guiana 1854-1884. Hansib, 1987.
      - Indenture and Abolition: sacrifice and survival on the Guyanese sugar plantations. Toronto: TSAR. 1993
      - A History of East Indian Resistance on the Guyana Sugar Estates, 1869-1948. Edwin Mellen Press New York. 1996
      - Indians in Guyana: A Concise history. Adams Press, 1999, 2000
      - The Elusive El Dorado. Essays on the Indian Experience in Guyana. Univer Press of America. 2005

      MANOO-RAHMING, Leewattee: Trinidad & Tobago
      Curry Flavor

      MANUEL, Peter Lamarche: America
      East Indian Music in the West Indies: Tan-Singing, Chutney, and the Making of Indo-Caribbean Culture with CD (Audio). Temple University Press

      MISIR, Prem: Guyana/America
      - Workers' Participation in Management: Case of Nationalized Enterprises in Guyana, 2nd Ed. New Delhi, India: reliance Publishing House. 1995
      - Leadership Behavior and the Compliance Structure in Education: A Sociological Study of Ideology and Social Change in Guyana. Caribbean Diaspora Press, Inc. 1998
      - Ethnic Cleavage and Closure in the Caribbean Diaspora. Caribbean Diaspora Press, Inc

      MOHAMED, Nazer: Trinidad & Tobago
      The End is Not Yet. Self-published. Curepe, 1985.

      MOHAMMED, Sharlow: Trinidad & Tobago
      - Apartheid Love. Trinidad & Tobago, 1982.
      - Requiem For A Village. Trinidad & Tobago, 1982.
      - The Elect. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1992.

      MONAR, Rooplall: Guyana, winner of the Guyana Prize for literature
      - Backdam People. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1987.
      - Janjhat. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1989.
      - High House and Radio. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1992.
      - Estate People. Guyana: Roraima, 1994.

      MOORE, Dennison: Trinidad & Tobago
      Origins and Development of Racial Ideology In Trinidad: The Black View of the East Indian
      1995. Chakra. 880 pp. ISBN 971-8052-26-0
      Racism bedevils most societies in the world today. The book explores the Marxist perspective in the Capitalist mode of production and the role of the Church in the development of Racial Ideology in Trinidad. The methodology used provides an example for the study of racial ideology in other countries of the world.

      MOOTOO, Shani:
      Out on Main Street and Other Stories. Vancouver,B.C.: Press Gang Publishers, 1993.

      MOTEELALL, Taij Kumarie: Guyana/America, poet

      MUNIRAM, Hemraj: Guyana, fiction writer

      NAGAMOOTOO, Moses: Guyana, novelist, poet and journalist
      - Hendree's Cure: Scenes from Madrasi Life in a New World. Peepal Tree Press (UK), 2000.
      - Anthology of Revolutionary Poems. (Edited) New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1976
      - The Three Trials of Arnold Rampersaud: a true story narrative. New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1978
      - Race, Class and Nationhood (with Cheddi Jagan). New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1991
      - Fraud (a Synopsis of Guyana's 1980 Elections). New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1980
      - Paramountcy over the Media in Guyana. New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1992
      - The Way Forward - Towards a Political Solution In Guyana. New Guyana Co. Ltd. 1998

      NAIDU, Janet A.: Guyana/Canada, poet since in the seventies
      - Winged Heart. Greenheart. 1999
      - Rainwater. Greenheart. 2005

      NAIPAUL, Balkrishna: Trinidad & Tobago/Toronto
      - Anc On The Horizo, 501 pages. Xlibris.2002.
      - Legends of the Emperor's Ring, 503 pages. Xlibris. 2003.

      NAIPAUL, Seepersad: Trinidad & Tobago
      Gurudeva and Other Indian Tales. Trinidad & Tobago: Privately printed, 1943. London: André Deutsch, 1976.

      NAIPAUL, Shiva: Trinidad & Tobago
      - Fireflies. London: André Deutsch, 1970.
      - The Chip-Chip Gatherers. London: André Deutsch, 1973.
      - Love and Death in a Hot Country. New York: Viking, 1983.
      - North of South. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1983.
      - Beyond the Dragon's Mouth: Stories and Pieces. 1984
      - An Unfinished Journey. London: Hamish Hamilton, 1986.

      NAIPAUL, V.S.: Trinidad & Tobago, winner of the Nobel Prize
      - The Mystic Masseur.
      This is the story of Ganesh Ramsumair's success: of how, if he had not been so unappreciated as a teacher he would never become a masseur; of how, if he had not lacked talent as an ordinary masseur he would never have blossomed into a mystic one. Such a topsy-turvy success story could only have taken place in Trinidad & Tobago. (Heinemann blurb) London: André Deutsch, 1957. London: Hinemann, 1971.
      - The Suffrage of Elvira. London: André Deutsch, 1958.
      Miguel Street. The author's first book, but third published. A collection of stories. London: André Deutsch, 1959. London: Hinemann, 1974.
      - A House for Mr. Biswas. London: André Deutsch, 1961.
      - Mr. Stone and the Knights Companion. London: André Deutsch, 1963.
      - The Mimic Men. London: André Deutsch, 1967.
      - A Flag on the Island. London: André Deutsch, 1967.
      - The Loss of El Dorado. 1969
      - In a Free State. London: André Deutsch, 1971.
      - Guerrillas. London: André Deutsch, 1975.
      - A Bend in the River. London: André Deutsch, 1979.
      - The Enigma of Arrival. London: André Deutsch, 1987.
      - A Way in the World. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.

      NANCOO, Stephen E., Robert S. Nancoo and Stephen N. Nancoo: Guyana/Canada
      Indo Caribbean Canadians, Who's Who, Profiles of Achievements. Canadian Educators' Press, 100 City Centre Drive, Box 2094, Mississauga, Ontario Canada, L5B 3C6.

      NARAIN, Denise Decaires (Editor): Trinidad & Tobago
      Contemporary Caribbean Women's Poetry: Making Style (Routledge Research in Postcolonial Literatures). Library Binding - 272 pages (December 28, 2001). Routledge; ISBN: 0415218128

      NARAYAN, Ongkar: Guyana/Canada
      Welcome to a New Guyana. Keysha Publishers. Canada.1996

      NARINE, Dhanpaul: Guyana/America
      Sojourners to Settlers: Indian Immigrants in the Caribbean and the Americas (Ed, with Mahine Gosine)

      NARAIN, Harry:
      Grass-Root People. Cuba: Casa de las Americas, 1981.

      NARINE, Harricharan: Trinidad & Tobago
      Days Gone By. Self-published. Mayaro. 1975.

      NATH, Dwarka: Guyana
      A History of Indians in Guyana. Self-published, London: Nelson. 1950

      ORIE, Siddhartha L: Trinidad, travel writer
      Guyana: A Tour Guide. Trinidad & New York. 1993

      PERSAUD, Harry McD.: Guyana/America
      Collection of Short Stories (Amerindians and Travel)

      PERSAUD, Joseph S.: Guyana/America
      Across Three Continents. An Indo-Guyanese Family Experience. Palm Tree Enterprises Publisher. 2002

      PERSAUD, Krishna: Guyana, poet since in the sixties

      PERSAUD, Lakshmi: Trinidad & Tobago/UK
      - Butterfly in the Wind. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1990.
      - Sastra. Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1993.
      - Raise The Lanterns High. Black Amber Book 2004

      PERSAUD, Parbattie: Guyana, poet since in the seventies

      PERSAUD, Randolph B., Guyana/America
      Counter Hegemony and Foreign Policy. State University of New York Press. 2001. 273pp.

      PERSAUD, Sasenarine: Guyana/Canada/USA
      - Dear Death. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1989.
      - The Ghost of Bellows Man. Leeds, Yorkshire: Peepal Tree Press, 1992.
      - A Surf of Sparrows' Songs : A Poemanjali. Toronto: Tsar Publications, 1997.
      - Canada Geese and Apple Chatney (Stories). Toronto: TSAR, 1998.
      - The Hungry Sailor. TSAR Press, Toronto, Canada. 2000.

      PERSAUD Thakoor: Guyana
      Conflicts Between Multinational Corporations and Less Developed Countries: The Case of Bauxite Mining in the Caribbean With Special Reference to Guyana. Hardcover. June 1980. Ayer Co Pub; ISBN: 0405133782

      PREMDAS, Ralph R.: Guyana
      Ethnic Conflict & Development: The Case of Guyana

      RAMAGE (Dabydeen), Sally: Guyana/UK
      An Introduction to Intellectual Property. iUniverse. 2004
      Legal and Regulatory Framework: For Business in the UK. iUniverse. 2004
      Fraud - The Company Law Background. iUniverse. 2006

      RAMESSAR, Marianne S
      Survivors of another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MacMillan, London, 1996

      RAMHARACK, Baytoram (ed): Guyana/America
      Centenary Celebration of the Arrival of Indians to British Guiana (1838-1938). By The British Guiana East Indian Association (BGEIA). Chakra Publishing House. 2001
      AGAINST THE GRAIN: Balram Singh Rai and the Politics of Guyana. Chakra Publishing House. 2005

      RAMHARACK, Roopram: Guyana/America
      Growing up Guyanese. 1994

      RAMCHAND Kenneth: Trinidad & Tobago
      - An introduction to the study of West Indian literature. 183 pages. Nelson Caribbean; ISBN: 0175660581
      - Critical Perspectives on Wilson Harris. Hardcover (June 1986). Passeggiata Press; ISBN: 0914478974
      - The West Indian novel and its background. 295 pages. Faber; ISBN: 0571088252; Heinemann; ISBN: 0435986651

      RAMKEESOON, Peter: Trinidad & Tobago
      Sunday Morning Coming Down. Port-of-Spain: Scope Publishing, 1975. Trinidad & Tobago: L.A Toby and Scope, 1991.

      RAMNARINE, Devanand: Guyana/Canada/America
      - The Political Economy of the US Caribbean Basin Recovery Act (1984). Queen's university at Kingston: Donor Canadian Foundation .Project on Sovereignty and Security, 1989, 95pp.
      - The Politics of the US Congressional Approval Process in the Passage of the Caribbean Basin Initiative. Queen's university at Kingston: .Donor Canadian Foundation Project on Sovereignty and Security, 1989, 66pp.
      - Toward a New beginning: Report of the Four-Level Government Inquiry into the Condition of racial Minorities in Toronto. Co-authored by 8-member committee, 1993. 125pp.

      RAMPHAL, John Kuar Persaud: Guyana/USA
      V.S. Naipaul's Empty Chapel. Sugarcane Publishing/XLibris. 2003

      RAMRAJ, Robert: Guyana/America
      GUYANA. Population, Environments, Economic Activities. Printed in the USA. 2003

      RAMSARAN, W: Trinidad/Canada
      - Novel: THE SURROGATE, published by Vantage Press, Inc. New York 1986. ISBN 0-533-0-6097-4
      - Non-fiction: THE WORLD INSIDE, published by the Author 2002. ISBN 09730557-0-07 Printed in Canada by Aditek Design and Printing.
      - A book of Poems: A WELLSPRING OF POEMS, published by the Author 2002. ISBN 0-9730557-1-5 Printed in Canada by Aditek Design and Printing.
      - Non Fiction: A THOUSAND ARGUMENTS, published by the Author 2002. ISBN 0-9730557-2-3 Printed in Canada by Aditek Design and Printing.
      - Novel: EMBRYO CHILD, published by the Author 2003. ISBN 9730557-3-1 Printed in Canada by Aditek Design and Printing.
      - Novel: THE SPIRIT OF CHARLIE, published by the Author 2003. ISBN 0-9730557-4-X Printed in Canada by Aditek Design and Printing.
      - Novel: DARK WATERS, published by the Author 2004. ISBN 0-9730557-5-8

      RAUF, Mohammad A.: Guyana
      Indian Village in Guyana: A Study of Cultural Change and Ethnic Identity

      RUHOMAN, Peter: (ed) Guyana
      Centenary History of the East Indians in British Guiana 1838-1938. East Indian 150th Anniversary Committee. 1988

      SADEEK, Sheik: Guyana
      - Song of the Sugarcanes. Guyana: Privately printed, 1975.
      - The Malali Makers. Guyana: Privately printed, 1979.

      SALLUHUDDIN: Guyana/America
      - Guyana: The Struggle for Liberation 1945-1992. Guyana. Georgetown, 1994
      - Labour at the Crossroads. New Guyana Company. 1992.

      SAMAROO, Brinsley et al. (ed.)
      In Celebration of 150 years of the Indian Contribution to Trinidad and Tobago. Arima, Trinidad, 1995

      SAMPATH Nelson, Emmanuel (ed.)
      The Literature of the Indian Diaspora. Greenwood Press, Connecticut. 1992.

      SEECHARAN, Clem: Guyana/UK
      - Tiger in the Stars: The anatomy of Indian achievement in British Guiana, 1919-1929. London: Macmillan. 1997
      - Indian and the Shaping of the Indo-Guyanese Imagination, 1890s-1920s. Leeds: Peepal tree. 1993
      - Bechu: 'bound coolie' radical in British Guiana, 1894-1901, with an introductory essay by Basdeo Mangru. University of the West Indies Press, Kingston, Jamaica. 1999.
      - Indo-West Indian Cricketers. Hansib. 1988. (with Frank Birbalsingh)
      - Joseph Ruhomon's India: The Progress of her people at home and abroad, and how those in British Guiana may improve themselves. (Ed) University of the West Indies Press, Trinidad. 2001
     - ... Sweetening "Bitter Sugar": Jock Campbell's British Guiana, 1934-1966. (In press).

      SELVON, Samuel: Trinidad & Tobago (1924-1994)
      - A Brighter Sun. London: Allan Wingate, 1952. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1985.
      - An Island is a World. London: Allan Wingate, 1955. Toronto: TSAR, 1993. London: TSAR, 1994.
      - The Lonely Londoners. London: Allan Wingate, 1956. Toronto: TSAR, 1991.
      - Ways of Sunlight. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1957. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1985.
      - Turn Again Tiger. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1958. London: Heinemann, 1979.
      -  Hear Thunder. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1963.
      - The Housing Lark. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1965.
      - A Drink of Water. London: Nelson, 1968.
      - The Plains of Caroni. London: MacGibbon and Kee, 1970. Toronto: Williams-Wallace Publishers, 1985.
      - Those Who Eat the Cascadura. London: Davis-Poynter, 1972. Toronto: TSAR, 1990.
      - Moses Ascending. The second of Selvon's novels about West Indians in Britain, this is the entertaining sequel to The Lonely Londoners. (Heinemann blurb) London: Davis-Poynter, 1975. London: Heinemann, 1984.
      - Moses Migrating. London: Longman, 1983. Essex: Longman Drumbeat, 1983.
      [Washington, DC] Three Continents Press [1992]. (Hardcover and trade paperback). Includes a new preface by the author.
      - Highway in the Sun. (Plays) ????.
      - Eldorado West One. (Plays) Leeds: Peepal Tree Press, 1988.
      - Foreday Morning: Selected Prose (1946-1986). [Essex] Longman [1989].

      SHARMA, PD: Guyana

      SHEWCHARAN, Narmala: Guyana
      Tomorrow is Another Day. Leeds: Peepal Tree, 1994.

      SIEWAH, Samaroo (ed): Trinidad & Tobago
      Lotus and the Dagger: The Capildeo Speeches (1957-1994). Foreword by Dr John La Guerre
      1994. Chakra. 800 pp. ISBN 970-8186-20-0
      This volume carries 45 speeches of Simbhoonath Capildeo, Dr Rudranath Capildeo, former Members of Parliament and Senator Surendranath Capildeo. Interviews with contemporaries of the Capildeo complement the volume. It is illustrated with an elaborate appendix.

      SIEWAH, Samaroo and ARJOONSINGH, Sattie (Eds): Trinidad & Tobago
      Basdeo Panday: The Making of a Prime Minister. Selected Speeches (1976-1996)
      Foreword by Daurius Figueira. Introduction by Dennis Brown. 1996. Chakra. 700 pp.
      The compilation on Mr. Panday covers the period 1976-1995 as Parliamentary Opposition Leader and 1996 - as Prime Minister. Among the themes included are Politics in a Multi-Ethnic Democracy, Regional and International Relations, Multiculturalism sad the Mass Media.

      SIEWAH Samaroo and MOONILAL Roodal (Eds): Trinidad & Tobago
      Basdeo Panday: An Enigma Answered. A First Volume of Speeches. Foreword by Dr. John La Guerre.
      1991. Second Impression. Chakra. 560 pp. ISBN 976-8001-78-I
      This volume contains 58 speeches spanning the period 1966-~991. It is classified under themes such as Economies, Constitutionalism, Caribbean Integration, Ideological Pluralism, Race Relations, Trade Unionism and Politics. Photographs and cartoons as well as newspaper clipping accompany the text.

      SIEWAH, Samaroo and RAMPERSAD-NARINESINGH, Indira (Eds): Trinidad & Tobago
      Basdeo Panday: Man in the Middle. A Second Volume of Speeches. Foreword by Dr. Dennison Moore, Queen's University, Canada. 1996. Chakra. 980 pp. ISBN 976-8102-83-8
      Thin companion volume contains 62 speeches form 1972-1995. Some of the themes include Youth and Women, Mass Media1 Caribbean Heroes and Heroines, Education, Economies, Law and Society.

      SILVERMAN, Marilyn
      Rich People and Rice: Factional politics in rural Guyana. Lieden: Brill. 1980

      SINGH, Chaitram: Guyana
      Guyana: Politics in a Plantation Society (Politics in Latin America). Hardcover. 1988. 175 pages. Praeger Pub Text; ISBN: 0275929892

      SINGH, Dharanjit: Trinidad & Tobago/America
      Secrets of the Universe. New York. 1997

      SINGH, Hari P.: Trinidad & Tobago
      The Indian Struggle for Justice and Equality against Black Racism in Trinidad & Tobago; 1956-1962. Trinidad: Indian Review Press. 1993

      SINGH I J Bahadur (ed.)
      Indians in the Caribbean. Sterling Publishers, Delhi. 1987. 424 pages. Apt Books, Incorporated. 1987.

      SINGH, Jagdish R.: Guyana/Canada
      Earthly Tribulations. PublishAmerica. Baltimore. 2003
      Pandora's Heartaches. 2005

      SINGH, Karna: Guyana, writer and poet

      SINGH, Karna and STEPHANIES, George
      "The Feast and Festivities of Mother Kali."

      SINGH Paul: Guyana
      Guyana: socialism in a plural society

      SINGH, Kit Puran: Trinidad & Tobago
      Saraswatee: A Novel of India. Seattle: Madrona Publishers, 1982.

      SINGH, Naresh: Guyana/America
      Sustainable Livelihoods. Kumarian Press, 2001. (with Kristin Helmore)

      SINGH, Pritha: Guyana, writer, playwright and poet
      "Fireflies" (a collection of poems)
      Woman of the Mahabharat. 2000. 2001. New York

      SINGH, Rajkumarie: Guyana, leading Guyanese poet since in the fifties.

      SINGH, Ronald: Guyana/America
      Fragrance of a Desert Rose: A Book of Poems. International Development Consultants. 1997

      SINGH, Roopnandan: Guyana
      - The Thorn in the Rose. 1994
      - Eve. 1995
      - Sky Dance. 1997
      - Roll Play. 1998
      - Shadow in the Dark. 2000
      - Eternal Quest. 2000

      SINGH, Seopaul: Guyana, writer and poet
      Changing Moods. Collection of poems. (In press). 2002

      SIRJU, Mohan: Trinidad & Tobago
      So Let It Be. Toronto: Dovann Publishing Company, 1972.

      The East Indian Indentureship System in Jamaica, 1845-1917. PhD Dissertation. University of Waterloo, Canada. 1980

      SOOKDEO, Neil A.: Trinidad & Tobago
      Freedom, Festivals and Caste in Trinidad after Slavery: A Society in Transition. 2001. 346 pp. ISBN 1-4010-1768-1
      Published by Xlibris Corporation, USA. Distributed locally by Chakra.
      This book is about slavery, free labor and racism; it is also about racism. The chapters include information about the journey aboard the "coolie" ships from India, Trinidad in the nineteenth century, immigration and the demands of the plantation economy, education in the colony, colonial elites, Carnival, and the 1884 Hosay/ Muharram riots.

      SOOKDEO, Sandra: Trinidad & Tobago
      Indian Dance for the Caribbean. Foreword by Dr Kenneth Vidia Parmesad .1994. Chakra. 150 pp. ISBN 976-8104-68-8
      This book explores the origin of dance and traces its movement and development in the Caribbean during indentureship (1845-1917). The relevance of the dance form in a Caribbean setting is discussed as well as a step-by-step approach.

      SUKHDEO, Gokarran: Guyana, poet, novelist; winner of the Guyana Prize for Literature
      - The Silver Lining. 1998. New York
      - Poems of Love and Liberty. 1998

      TENNASSEE, Paul: Guyana/America
      - Guyana: A Nation in Ruins. GRRS, Toronto. 1982. 101pp.
      - Caribbean Workers Struggle for Real democracy. FLACPO, Guarenas, Venezuela. 1987. Co-authored. 180pp.
      - Guyana: A Nation-State too Young to Die. CARISFORM, Curacao, NA. 1987. 62pp.
      - Caribbean Integration & The Labour Movement, Part I & Part II. CARISFORM, Curacao, NA. Co-authored. 1988. 140pp.
      - Guyana: A Case for Free & Fair Elections. CARICARE Meeting. ISDG, Trinidad. 1989 (Booklet 24pp)
      - The DLM: Origin-Diagnosis-Ideology-Objective-Structure-Programme. DLM Publications. Guyana. 1989 (Booklet 35pp)
      - DLM and the Guyana of Tomorrow: Free & Fair Elections Now: Towards a New Guyana. ISDG, Trinidad. 1990 (Booklet 36pp)
      - State Capitalism and Ideological Opportunism. Bauxite & Sugar Workers Struggle (1970-1980). CARISFORM, Curacao, NA. 1989. 110pp.
      - Europe and its Impact on Caribbean & Latin American Working Class - Part I & Part II. Co-authored. 1992. 200pp.
      - Perspectiva sobre la Integracion en el Caribe y America Latina, publicado en el documento sobre 1er Ecuentro Latino Americano de .Trabajadores, Republica Dominicana. Noviembre 1992. (Co-authored, booklet 50pp)

      THAKUR, P.S.: Guyana/America
      Guyana: Political and Social Satire. Cowhood, Inc., Canada. 1987

      TINKER, Hugh:
      A New System of Slavery: The Export of Indian Labor Overseas 1838-1920. London: Oxford Press, 1974
      Separate and unequal: India and the Indians in the British Commomwealth, 1920-1950. London: C. Hurst, 1976

      TIWARI, Bri. Maya: Guyana/America
      The Path of Practice: A Woman's Book of Healing with Food, Breath and Sound. Ballantine, 2000

      VERTOVEC, Steven
      Hindu Trinidad. London, 1992.

      VIDYAHANAND, George: Guyana, poet since in the seventies

      WOOD, D.: England
      Trinidad in Transition. The Years after Slavery. Oxford. 1968




From time to time, when Dr. Cheddi Jagan was Premier of Guyana during 1961-1964, he raised with the British Government the problem of the racial imbalance     in the police and security forces in the country.

On those occasions he asked for the setting up of a commission of inquiry to examine this situation and to make recommendations to allow for more Indians to be accepted into the Police Force.  

The British government apparently agreed that the racial imbalance in the police and security forces acted to increase racial insecurity in the country but dragged its feet on the setting up of such a commission.

However, when the PNC-UF coalition came to power, the British Colonial Office offered in January 1965 to appoint a commission of inquiry to examine this matter, but Forbes Burnham, the new Premier, opposed it on the ground that such a commission would undermine the self-governing status of Guyana.


Extracted from full article on http://www.guyana.org/




De «Trade Winds» à «Right Track» -
des profs d'anglais soucieux de présenter la Caraïbe

La revue pédagogique quadri-annuelle d'anglais «Right Tracks» publiée par le Centre Régional de Documentation Pédagogique Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse) a consacré à la Caraïbe son n° 4 d'Octobre 2005, mené avec brio par Mademe l'Inspectrice de l'Enseignement Technique Francine Doquet avec le  concours de plusieurs enseignants anglicistes, dont Madame Laurence Bernard du Lycée La Jetée en Martinique, et M. Jean-S. Sahaï du Lycée d'Hôtellerie & de Tourisme Archipel Guadeloupe.

Pratiquement passée sous silence, cette information est à mettre en première ligne. Il est indéniable que de tels outils outils manquent cruellement. Comme tout parent-pays qui se respecte, le prof d'anglais d'ici-îles ne peut ignorer la nécessité de sensibiliser l'élève à son environnement anglophone et créolophone immédiat — le vaste et divers monde de la Caraïbe, et à son histoire complexe.

Mais le professeur et l'élève sont-ils bien outillés pour ce faire?

Les manuels d'anglais d'en-France s'ouvrent généralement sur des cartes de Grande-Bretagne, Etats-Unis/Canada, Australie et Nouvelle-Zélande. La carte du pays où vit le plus grand nombre d'anglophones au monde, l'Inde, est absente.

Quant à la carte de la Caraïbe, lorqu'il y a en a une, elle est toute rikiki!

Paru il y a des décennies, l'ouvrage «Trade Winds» fut en son temps une petite révolution, dûe à la préoccupation caribéenne des membres de l'Association des Professeurs d'Anglais de Guadeloupe (APAG) - Antooine Toumson, Guillemette Roche, Bernard Banny..., pour en citer quelques-uns. Mais cette pièce de musée est introuvable et, forcément, devenue tant soit peu caduque.

On peut regretter, dans ce «Right Track» n° 4 de 2005 qui décrit aussi la Guadeloupe et la Martinique, et présente le créole, la piètre sinon inexistante allusion aux immigrations indienne ou chinoise.

Notons en passant, le cas singulier des descendants français des Saintes, Désirade, St. Barthélemy, Moule-Matignon, des mondes mulâtre, chaben, béké, syrien, libanais...

Tous bien présents et actifs dans la Caraïbe depuis plusieurs générations, leur absence  est encore, hélas, monnaie courante dans les descriptions scolaires. Ces composantes humaines sont trop souvent occultées dans les descriptions de l'ère colo- et post-coloniale, au profit de la seule descendance africaine confrontée au monde blanc, ce qui donne une piètre description du monde antillo-caribéen. 

Gêne? Du fait de leur rôle, de leurs apports et de leur spécificité, tous les apports doivent  sans conteste trouver leur juste place dans les programmes - avec l'histoire de l'esclavage et de l'engagisme, en toute objectivité historique et sociale.

Il est donc grand temps qu'émergent d'autres compléments didactiques équilibrés sur le thème caribéen, en format papier ou informatique, aux livres de langues conçus pour l'élève hexagonien.

En attendant, chaque prof d'anglais des Antilles - et les plus ouverts de ceux de pôle-métro - se doivent de sauter sur ce «Right Tracks» Special Caribbean  riche et bien conduit.

A commander en ligne, ou solliciter au CRDP de Guadeloupe qu'on vous en fasse venir un'n. Une enseignante de Martinique qui l'a commandé via le CRDP foyalais en novembre... l'a reçu en... mars!

Voir également, par Michelle Henry, professeur d'anglais à Nancy, une page web interactive à l'intention des enseignants désirant enseigner The Caribbean, the West Indies.

La revue 'Right Tracks' du CRDP Midi-Pyrénées (Toulouse) consacre son n° 4 d'Octobre 2005 aux Antilles.

A partir d'une réflexion sur l'image cliché ou reflet de la réalité, ce numéro propose plusieurs axes de découverte des Antilles et de la Caraïbe; l'exploration maritime, l'esclavage, le climat, les festivals, la musique, la publicité sont le support des pratiques pédagogiques que viennent compléter l'étude de films, les pistes de lecture et d'autres ressources.

ISBN : 2-86565-040-5 - 12 (doux) euros.



"The younger generation of Caroos have no idea what our history is, and our parents do not even seem to know about it themselves..."

"After the Indians were brought to the Caribbean the various churches saw an opportunity to increase their flocks and to break the Indians away from their "pagan" and "idolatrous" behavior. 

They aggressively pursued this in most of the colonies, but their successes never eclipsed the cultural teachings in those colonies that had large number of immigrant Indians such as Guyana and Trinidad, since these colonies had a large enough population that included Brahmin priests and Muslim teachers to officiate in ceremonies and create Hindu and Muslim temples.

In the smaller islands this was not the case and the Christian churches were able make great headway in their teachings.

Continue reading "RELIGION IN ST. LUCIA" »




Indenture Roots Website 

The Chinese in Guyana

 Their introduction to Guyana (then called British Guiana) as indentured immigrants took place between 1853 and 1879.


Reasons for and results of Chinese immigration.

Typical contract of indenture used in 1873 for the Chinese labourers.

Details of the travels of the 39 immigrant ships. 

Chinese immigration site.

Chinese workers in Guadeloupe.

«Le fond du coeur est plus loin que le bout du monde.»  Chinese
Proverbe Chinois.

Et que dans ce combat là
Chaque peuple quelque petit qu'il soit
Tient une partie du front
Donc en définitive est comptable
D'une part même infime

De l'espérance humaine.

- Aimé Césaire.





Efforts are being made to set up a St.Vincent and the Grenadines Indian Heritage Foundation.

In August 2005, a group of Indian descendants met and discussed the possibility of establishing a foundation to disseminate and share information about the Indian Heritage of St.Vincent and the Grenadines.

By the end of this month, the foundation should be registered as a legal entity.

An official launching is scheduled to take place on Thursday, June 1.

June this year will mark the 145th anniversary since the first group of Indian Indentured Labourers arrived in St.Vincent and the Grenadines.

Through the foundation a series of activities will be staged leading up to the 150th anniversary of the Indians’ arrival in 2010.

The foundation will also establish a website.

INFO SOURCE : Searchlight.

South India, near Chennai. ©J.S. 2006.



On June 1, 1861 a ship with 260 Indians landed on the Western end of the Kingstown harbour, Edinboro, St. Vincent island in the West Indies.

They had travelled for about
94 days from Madras, India to St. Vincent.

This was the first of eight ships to bring a total number of 2,475 Indians to St. Vincent.

The other seven ships departed from Calcutta with Indians who originated from the Northern provinces of India.

The migration of Indians to St. Vincent lasted for about 20 years from 1861 to 1880.

Full article by Lenroy Thomas, on Searchlight Site.

Fountain Illuminations in Mysore, South India, Jan. 2006. ©J.S. 06.


Rich in the knowledge of his ancestry, Osley Baptiste, a Vincentian of Indian descent, is proud to share some of that information.

The Villa resident, tracing his ancestry, said he is the great grandson of Rambulock Singh, an Indian Hindi Pundit who was brought to St.Vincent and the Grenadines as an indentured labourer from India...

Full article on Searchlight Site.

South India Man, the Nilgiris, Jan. 06. ©J.S.


Guyana (1838), Jamaica (1845), Trinidad (1845), Martinique (1853), French Guiana (1854) Guadeloupe (1854), Grenada (1857), Belize ( 1859), St. Lucia (1859 ), St. Vincent (1861), St. Kitts (1861) , St. Croix (1863), Suriname (1873), Nevis (1874).


Guadeloupean mixed girls proudly celebrate their Indian heritage part. 

See here


April 28, 2005


The National Council for Indian Culture in Jamaica
3, Breary Avenue
Kingston, Jamaica
West Indies

Attn: Mrs. Beryl Williams-Singh, Chairman

Dear Indo-Jamaican family and friends,

Please accept and convey the congratulations from the people of Saint Lucia and its Indian population on the 160th anniversary of the arrival of indentured workers from India.

We applaud your team who managed to win the support of multi-cultural heritage groups, organizations, and other governments’ .

Your determination to commemorate the ancestors and their precious contribution to the evolution of the Jamaican nation over the years will continue to inspire us.

Saint Lucia has a sizeable population who are descendants of indentured laborers from India that were brought to save the cultivation and processing of sugar cane. The Palmyra brought the first, of thirteen, shiploads on May 6, 1859. A point of note: the last ship to bring Indian laborers to St. Lucia was the Volga, which sank off the coast of Vigie Point, near Castries on the night of Dec 10, 1893. It was carrying 156 Indians for St. Lucia and 487 for Jamaica.

All souls were saved; and those for Jamaica were taken there on the Jumna on Dec 22nd. So not only were the Volga’s Indians jahaji’s, but they shared a strong bond, forged through the same tragic experience.

As you know Indians were indentured in fourteen different colonies in the Caribbean Basin/ South America: Guyana (1838), Jamaica (1845),  Trinidad (1845),  Martinique (1853), French Guiana (1854) Guadeloupe (1854), Grenada (1857),  Belize ( 1859),  St. Lucia (1859 ),  St. Vincent (1861),  St. Kitts (1861) , St. Croix (1863), Suriname  (1873),  and Nevis (1874).

So far some of these countries have been celebrated the 150th anniversary of arrival and acknowledged contribution of their Indians.   With the celebrations on Martinique in 2003 and on Guadeloupe in 2004, the way is being been paved toward inter-Caribbean, Indian, and international acknowledgement of this presence.  Integration, contribution, and acknowledgement across the whole Caribbean need to continue.

Remarkably, Guadeloupe chose a year long celebration where organizations, government-sponsored, family, and individual reflections by all segments of the population were encouraged. 

An interesting report with photographs on the Guadeloupe commemorative events of 2004 can be found on-line here.

We hope to see this trend continue with the other islands.

Please keep in touch.


Richard B. Cheddie
Columbus, Ohio

Saint Lucia Indian Heritage Interest Group.


You know you are a St. Lucian Indian or Indo-St. Lucian...


If you refer to yourself as “coolie”,
If you have a relative that is a mechanic,
If you or a relative drives a transport,
If you or a relative drives a dump truck,
If you have a relative that is a fisherman,
If someone in your family is a businessman,
If you have more than 5 alcoholics in your family,
If you always have that one relative in the rumshop,
If you like white rum,
If your grandparents/great-grandparents call their children
betior beta
If you refer to speaking Hindi and as speaking “Indian”,
If you know what a “chamar” or “jungalee” means
If anything with curry, you call it Indian food,
If you like fish broth
If you can make dahlpuri,
If someone in your family is a Methodist or Catholic,
If your grandfather has been accused of “taking people for devil”,
If you have to ask a boy/girl that you want to “check” if you are related to them before you go out,
If you lime in a group of 3 or more,
If you always threatening to chop a man with a cutlass,
If you listen to Country n’ Western,
If your family knows the value of a ten cents,
If you like cricket because “we have another one as Captain”
If you or a family member is fond of cows or horses,
If you are or have Dougla-s, and ¾ Indians in your family,
If you have a drop of Indian blood running through your veins,
If your ancestors Were indentured servants...

By Madrassee.

B&W photo, Rambali family in the 70's, - courtesy  J. Rambally. Special thanks.







St. Lucia's mango shape adorns the Caribbean with its varied population, and its French creole.

Le premier convoi d'engagés de l'Inde arriva à Ste Lucie sur le  Palmyra le 6 mai 1859. En tout, 13 navires amenèrent 4.354 indiens  sur l'île.

La plupart venaient de l'Uttar Pradesh et du Bihar, mais certains bateaux venaient aussi du Bengale et de Madras.

On note que 2.562  travailleurs retournèrent en Inde à la fin de leur engagement.

The History of St. Lucia

For my spirit, India is too far...

- albeit not so far
Derek Walcott cannot continue in the following verses,

...these fields sang of Bengal,

    behind Ramlochan Repairs there was Uttar Pradesh...

Here is an article Richard B. Cheddie wrote back in 1997 and was published in Peter Carr’s Caribbean Historical and Genealogical Journal. 


Saint Lucia is a 238 square mile Caribbean island nation about 1500 miles SE of the US mainland. St. Lucia has a very rich and colorful history from its inhabitation by South American Indians, colonization by European powers, to the introduction of African slaves and Indian indentured laborers from India. 

It is this blend of cultures that make St. Lucia a very interesting place to visit. I recently returned from a two-week trip to St. Lucia where I met my paternal kin for the first time and tried to trace one hundred years of my family's history on the island.

When researching your St. Lucian heritage the first thing that you have to remember is that your family is the greatest source of genealogical information.

They may hold the key to finding out that one vital piece of  data necessary to close a whole chapter of your research. I was able to see pass a couple of clerical errors in the records I researched because I took the time to interview, re-interview, and cross interview my relatives before I went to St. Lucia. Take the time to note the names and nicknames that they give you.

Find out what part of the island the family lived, worked, or visited. It will pay dividends.

Nicknames in St. Lucia are so common, even friends and family members may know each other only by their nicknames. Hardly anyone knew my grandfather's name was Richard, but mention the nickname "Chum" and you would get an ear full of his antics. Friends, family members, and even enemies gave most of these nicknames to the individuals from early childhood and the names stuck.

Another thing to remember when searching for leads in St. Lucia is that most St. Lucians are either descendants of former African slaves or East Indian indentured laborers.

A vast majority of them were coerced or forced to be  baptized, after which they were given Christian names. For example, my paternal great-grandfather Ramdath Mirai was given the name Peter after being baptized. Depending on the time of baptism, some of the birth records listed his children as being fathered by Ramdath Mirai , Peter Merahie, or even Ramdath Peter. It did not help that most of the Catholic priests at the times were French, which resulted in further variation of the spelling of Mirai: Merahie, Merraie, Meralice, Maralice, Murai, etc.

There are also cases where the Christian name was added in front of the original names. My great-great grand Uncle Ram Cheddie was baptized as Paul...

In the records held by the Catholic Church, all of his children have their father listed as Paul Ramcheddie. The priest also wrote Chedy instead of Cheddie. To add further challenges to the arduous researcher, the East Indian laborers who were given Christian names after baptism often passed this new name onto to their descendants as the family's new surname.

My great-great grand Uncle Sobhan Rattie's descendants still sign Antoine as their surname today.

The Central Registry is the second best source of genealogical information. However, it can be the most difficult place from which to obtain information.

Baptisms, marriage, divorces, deaths, name changes, land deeds, and a slew of other vital statistics are deposited in the Central Registry, some going back to the 1600's. Although there are a few computers available to the clerks, virtually all the information are still maintained in log books. The front entrance of the Registry is a short hallway with counters and a wire mesh screen on the right side. You take a number and wait until a clerk calls on you.

The Registry is a very busy place. The best time to go to there is early in the morning before the crowd does. By the late afternoon, the heat, crowded hallway, and frustration of the patrons can get the best of any clerk and lessen their enthusiasm to help you. You would need some form of I.D. and a little extra cash since a certified copy of your document could cost $5.00 USD or more; especially if the clerk has to search through many logs to find your information.

Some searches could take more than a week, so doing one's homework can help cut this time down greatly, and even put a smile on the clerk's face. I find that it was a lot easier to mail in my requests.

It cut down on the expenses by half and a response was often more forth coming than going there in person. I send US postal money orders of $5.00 for each search.

The Catholic Church Presbytery is the third main source of genealogical information in St. Lucia. The hours for the Presbyteries vary. They normally operate between the hours of 09:00 AM to noon, are closed from noon until 3:00 PM, and then are reopened from 3:00 PM to 5:00 PM. They are closed on Tuesday or Wednesday, always on Sunday. Saturdays are normally only half days.

There is usually a church in each of the larger towns, so it is very important that you find out which area your family members lived during the time of their births, death, marriage, etc. Records of these events are kept in logbooks, one for each year, at the Presbytery. Each of these entries is given a reference number and is listed in order, by year, in an index log.

Index logs contain listings for more than one year.

The index logs are the keys to the vast storehouse of information kept by each church. A typical baptismal listing would have the individuals name, year, and place of birth, name of mother, name of father, and names of godparents. After the clerk finds the correct listing in the index, the reference number is used to look up the corresponding logbook entry.

A certified copy of the entry can be had for $5.00 EC or less than $2.00 USD in cash. Entries prior to 1960 were typically written in French. If you know French ask the clerk to let you read the entry. It typically contains one or more valuable pieces of information that would not be placed on the copy of the certificate that you get.

After X amount of time all the logbooks are sent to the Central Registry in Castries. For instance, all the logbooks before 1920 for Vieux Fort, the largest city at the south end of the island, have already been moved to the Central Registry. However, each Presbytery maintains a copy of the index logs for their church only. I was able to search indices that go back to the late 1700's in Micoud, another town on the East of the island.

The fourth valuable of source of information is St. Lucia National Archives. The archive houses some of the oldest material available on the island. It had quite a bit of information dealing with European sources, as well as, those dealing with the importation of East Indian indentured laborers.

Private Citizens donated many of the documents found in the there, or copies were obtained from other Caribbean archives, such as from Grenada. Many of St. Lucia's original records were lost in two great fires, one in 1927, and the other in 1941.

The St. Lucia National Archives is located right next to the airport in Castries, the runway being only a few hundred yards away. A taxi ride from Castries is cheap. It is one of the few places I visited that allowed me to physically search the records at my own leisure. Once again a basic understanding of written French, or good a French dictionary would be a good investment before searching here. There was only one computer available, but it was not available to the researcher.

A photocopier is available.

The last major source of information is the Central Library. The pickings here are slim, but you can never tell when a gem may be found among the various works. On my trip I was able to obtain a very informative paper on the East Indians indentured laborers in St. Lucia. The reference section is located upstairs in the library. Bags and large purses are not allowed into the reading area to prevent book theft. They can be left at a check in station near the front receptionist desk, where an attendant keeps watch over them.

The key to researching in St. Lucia is to be persistent and thorough. Even if someone says that a particular record is unavailable, still search for it. It may turn up in the most unexpected place. A source of information that I heard was available but did not tap into, was the private collections held by some former plantation families. No one knows how large this source is, but the value of it should not be underestimated. Plan your searches carefully and you will not be disappointed.

The final tip that I can offer is when going about to conduct research, be aware that some places do not have public places to eat, especially in some smaller towns.

Moreover not all places have public restrooms.

There is one at the Archives, none at the Central Registry, and some Presbytery do not have one, but the church would. In either case walk with your own supply of toilet paper.

Richard B. Cheddie.

Photos of Richard's relatives, reproduced with his kind permission.




East Indian Music in the West Indies

Today, unbeknownst to many of us in the USA, Indo-Caribbeans form a majority or near majority of the population in the countries of Guyana,Trinidad, and Suriname and important if small minority populations in Belize, Jamaica, Grenada, and other islands of the Caribbean.  They hold important places in all levels of these societies and continue to create and recreate a unique Indo-Caribbean culture that strives to exist alongside the cultures of fellow Caribbean communities.


With the advent of colonialism, Indians found themselves increasingly bound for new and far away places, often as indentured laborers.  Many landed in parts of Africa, many found their way to the Mascarene Islands, Fiji, Canada, California, and of course to England, the home of their colonial masters.  Between 1838 and 1917 about half a million Indians came to the Caribbean and South America.  They majority came as replacement workers for newly freed African slave labor. 

They took up residence in the old slave quarters and worked on plantations, often isolated from other Caribbean communities.  The immigrants came from diverse regions within India, but the majority came from North India's Bhojpuri region and their language, Bhojpuri, along with English, became the language of communication amongst the Indo-Caribbeans. 

Within India, the Bhojpuri language, often referred to as Bihari because the majority of its speakers reside in the state of Bihar, can also be found in eastern Uttar Pradesh, southern Assam and western Bengal.  A sizeable minority of Indian laborers came from the Tamil and Telugu speaking regions of South India and preserved a form of Caribbean Tamil, which has, along with the Bhojpuri mentioned above, faded from use over the years. 

Along with language and social customs, these Indian immigrants brought with them their music, recorded and preserved on this CD by Alan Lomax.

Rounder CD1723E_indian






Street Scene in Ooty, Nilgiri Mountains, South India. Jan. 06. ©J.S. 2006.






I will prove that the East Indian population of St. Vincent receives the majority of racism against their minority group.

I will do this by proving East Indians are the minority of the island, that the Black population In St. Vincent are extremely prejudiced against the East Indians, pointing out the stereotypes and myths told about the East Indians.

I will prove that this racism against them stems from times of enslavement, and I will further prove that due to the racism and prejudiced, East Indians in St. Vincent have been deculturated. I will use written sources as well as interviews to prove my argument.

Continue reading "IS THERE RACISM IN ST. VINCENT?" »



Nilgiris, South India, Jan. 06. Photo ©J.S.2006.

"For my spirit, India is too far",
writes Derek Walcott.

Albeit not so far that he cannot write, in the following verse,

"these fields sang of Bengal,
behind Ramlochan Repairs there was Uttar Pradesh"...




Vieux Fort, St Lucia, old picture post card. Source Lameca

On the small Caribbean islands, the people of mixed descendence referred to as Dougla are viewed in the same light as Indians due to the minority number of Indians. They are treated the same way in their country, and still named coolies - although no longer necessarily with contempt.

They in turn are viewed as Black if they reside in Canada or United States, but when they are in their island of origin they assume their role as Indians.

The small island indian in society is indeed deemed indian by society.

Some Dougla consider themselves Black because they know nothing about Indian culture and therefore cannot embrace it.

Initially, I did not consider myself Indian because I felt I had no right to claim my "indianness" because I do no speak Hindi, I am not a Hindu, and I was not born in India.

I do not know much about the larger island Dougla but I assume they are sort of a people in limbo that are not accepted by either side, which puts them in the position of choosing side.

In the small islands the mixture of Indian can make a difference in terms of classification. However, if you are a quarter Indian you are not considered Indian but you are known to come from an Indian family.

I have noticed that many Dougla regard themselves depending on if they retain more Indian or more Black features.

Most Dougla consider themselves Black because they are shun by Indians from India or the bigger Caribbean island purists, and to the greatest extent because they are ignorant about their history and heritage.

Some Dougla believe that claiming their Indianness is denial of being Black. They feel as though they will be viewed with disdain if they are pro-indian while their features are more African-looking.

This can all change if one can cast light on the veil of ignorance regarding "indianness"...

Some Dougla are beginning to reconnect with the Indian part of their identity and to claim their Indian co-heritage.

They feel their Indian ancestors and their contributions to their country need to be acknowledged, as their contribution to the evolution of Grenada, St Vincent, St Lucia, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Jamaica... cannot be left unacknowledged or those islands considered just like euro-afro civilized.

India herself is coming to terms with the fact that her diaspora is as blended abroad as its people is at home.

The dire fact is that culture no longer sticks to race.

- a contribution by Shankar K. Ram from St Lucia.

26 March 2005.

India Caribbean Boutique



On the small Caribbean islands (St Lucia, St Vincent, Grenada...), the dougla are viewed in the same light as Indians, due to the minoritiy of Indians. They are treated the same way, and still called coolies.

They in turn are viewed as black if they reside in Canada or the United States. But when they are on their island of origin they assume their role and condition as Indians.

Saint-Lucia's rainbow people :
Tony M., Gentle St. P., Brandon G.

The small island Indian in society is indeed deemed indian by society.
Some Dougla consider themselves Black just because they haven't been taught their history and the indian culture, and therefore cannot embrace it.

Initially, I did not consider myself Indian because I felt I had no right to claim my indianness since I do no speak Hindi, I am not a Hindu, and I was not born in India.

I do not know much about the larger island i.e. Trinidad & Tobago Dougla people, but I assume they are sort of a people in limbo that are not accepted by either side, which puts them in the position of choosing side.

In the small islands the mixture of Indian can make a difference in terms of classification.

However, if you are a quarter Indian you are not considered Indian, but you are known 'to come from an Indian family'.

I have noticed that many dougla come to regard themselves by depending on if they retain more indian or more black features.

Most dougla consider themselves Black because they are shun by indians from India or on the bigger Caribbean islands, and, to a great extent, ignorant about that portion of their heritage.

Some dougla also believe that claiming their indianness would be a denial of being black. They feel as though they would be viewed with disdain, if they are pro-indian, and their features are more african, and so keep it inside themselves.

But what good does it do to their psychic balance is a question one may ask.

This can all change if one can cast light on the veil of ignorance regarding indianness...

Some dougla are beginning to reconnect with their Indian identity and claim the Indian part of their history and heritage that used to be a shameful feature.

They feel their Indian ancestors and their contributions to their country need to be acknowledged, and thus are discovering the wealth of resources that is the country called India and her culture.

India too is discovering their existence and trying to come to terms with this mixed facet of her diaspora.

Text and photo contributed by Shankar Ram, a Saint-Lucian living in Florida.

26 March 2005.



Indian Indentured Laborers in the Caribbean Basin 1838~1917


This comprehensive website is an attempt by Richard B. Cheddie, a St Lucian of indian origin living in the USA,  to document the  names of the laborers,  ships, and the plantations involved in the indentureship scheme that brought brought East Indians to fourteen European colonies  in the Caribbean Basin from 1838 to 1917.

The site also includes information on the repatriation of these Indians that ended in the 1950's, and plan to include some cultural contribution made up until the 1960's. 





Young_james_rambally'Unlike Trinidad and Guyana, the three islands did not experience considerable labour immigration in the post-emancipation period. 

In St. Lucia, a total of 4,354 East Indians arrived between 1856 and 1895 to work the sugar plantations (Roberts and Byrne, 1966).  Of these, 2,446 were repatriated at the end of their indentureship.

St. Vincent received only 2,472, with 1,050 being repatriated. 

This is one reason why St. Lucia has a larger East Indian population today than St. Vincent.  Dominica received none. 

The data detailing nineteenth century Chinese, Portuguese, and Syria-Lebanese immigration to the three islands remain sketchy...'

'The occupations of East Indians in St. Lucia and St. Vincent reflect the timing of their immigration. 

The older rural immigrants are still engaged in agriculture like their indentured forebearers.  Some have experienced occupational mobility by finding employment in manufacturing and assembly-type industries. 

Newer immigrants from India are primarily engaged in commerce and the professions (mostly doctors). 

Guyanese Indian immigrants to St.Lucia are mostly employed as teachers, technicians, skilled tradesmen and in manufacture. 

Those in St. Vincent are mostly lawyers serving as magistrates and in Government legal service.'

- From a study by K. de Albuquerque and J. L. McElroy. Continue reading

Photo :
Young James, 1985
in Saint-Lucia, author unknown, enhanced.
Courtesy James Rambally. Click on the image to enlarge it.

Comments can be read or left down below.



Work has been done in Guadeloupe to restore the image of the East Indian minority, now integrated, to make their history known again - to themselves and their co-citizens, to make their important contribution to their country as a whole respected.

Such work still has to be be done in other Caribbean islands where they are a minority, as shown by this recent posting by an expatriate  St. Lucian of Indian origin.

I have been in a period of self-discovery over the past few years when it comes to things Indian. I was very anti-indian and if anything, pro-black. I read anything I could get my hands on about black achievers, black history, racism towards blacks, etc.

Continue reading "SAINT-LUCIAN INDIANS" »



Among the Indians of St. Lucia

By Martin Latchana    

The first Indians arrived in St. Lucia on board the Palmyra on the 6th May in 1859. In total, about 4,500 indentured workers arrived sporadically between 1858 and 1900. 

"SAKWEY KOOLI !" used to be a phrase of contempt in patois.

It was during a brief visit to St. Lucia in the summer of 1995 that I developed an interest in the Indians of St. Lucia. Twenty minutes into our catamaran voyage to the Soufriere volcano, the captain categorically announced to the tourists “most St. Lucians were of African descent.”

Perhaps he realised we were perplexed and then five minutes later he said “but we have Indians too who came as indentured workers.” In fact, I was later gratified to see Indians mentioned on the St. Lucia Tourist Board web site on the Internet.

Later on during that expedition, we introduced ourselves to the skipper of our boat the  “Mango Tango” and he proclaimed not too loudly that “the coolie man saves like hell but we can’t do it.” On that one-day sojourn on the island, I saw about five more Indians, including an elderly impoverished woman standing on a street corner of a fishing village; it looked as if she was begging. That image stuck with me for a long time.

On subsequent vacations in November 1996 and November 1997, I took the opportunity to learn more about the Indian presence and the contributions to St. Lucia. I had heard that the “small island” Indians had lost all traces of Indian culture. This proved partially true but there are many “Indian traits” that are still important. All of the Indians I spoke to “were proud of being Indian.”
Some of them had visited Trinidad and were astonished that so many Indians there had prospered and maintained an “Indian culture.”  Some of them have relatives in Guyana and had visited that country.

The first Indians arrived in St. Lucia on board the Palmyra in 1859. In total, about 4,500 indentured workers arrived sporadically between 1858 and 1900. As the result of the shipwreck of the Volga off Castries on December 10, 1893 several hundred Indians, who were not originally destined for St. Lucia, were added to the population of the island. Generally, many of the workers returned to India after their contracts expired, the last batch leaving in 1903. Some left to work in other Caribbean countries. The current percentage of Indians in St. Lucians is not known; estimates range from 3 to 8% of the population of a hundred and sixty thousand

There are considerable numbers of Indians in the south of the island. Many taxi drivers from the area Rudalbusare Indian and work at the airport.  On my visit to Augier, I noticed that Indians owned most of the houses.  I could have sworn that I was in rural Guyana. Vieux-Fort, the second largest town is found near the main airport and there are substantial numbers of Indians present as well as several Indian-owned businesses such as “Saroo’s Supermarket.” In 1996, at Vieux-Fort, I visited the richest man on the island, Mr. Louis Boriel. I was apprehensive on my first visit; the dogs, which were half-asleep on the veranda, added to my unease for I had not phoned ahead. Ms. Heraldine Gajadhar-Rock, who provided valuable information during my trips in 1996 and 1997 had said, “you must visit the shepherd who became a king.” Mr. Boriel, close to eighty years old told me to help myself to a beer in his fridge; we discoursed for a long time.

Louis Boriel's parents came from India as indentured labourers. Life was hard in his early years when he worked for twenty-five cents per day. During the Second World War he was a barber to American soldiers stationed near Vieux-Fort. Soon he started saving his earnings, bought a cow and became a butcher. Subsequently, he was able to purchase more cows and acquire much land. From his veranda, we looked out to Vieux-Fort and he said, “I own most of this.” I detected no boasting by this humble man who knows all about Indian immigration to the Caribbean and on my departure both times said, “give my regards to my people when you get back.”

After speaking to Ms. Gajadhar, Mr. Burai, Mr. Abel Ghirawoo, taxi-drivers and other Indians, I found out that race relations are generally good.  Indeed, most of the St. Lucians I met were curious about my own background and Afro-St. Lucians would make reference to someone as “Indian like you” or make passing comments such as “Indians have nice hair.”  While some of the hostility and negative attitudes toward Indians have decreased, there is much mutual stereotyping. The word “coolie” is used widely by Afro-St. Lucians but not generally in a racist sense but to my ears, it was a surprise. The phrase “sakwey coolie” in patois means, “damn coolie” and is considered as an insult by Indians.  St_lucia_photo_1997_mr_abel_ghirawoo_5

Having interacted all my life with Indo-Guyanese and Indo-Trinidadians and having been told that most Indians in St. Lucia had not retained Indian surnames, I was surprised to see that many of the prominent Indian business and professional people on the island have surnames such as Adjodha, Burai, Gajadhar, Gidharry, Khodra, Mangal, Mungroo, Naitram, Rambally, Sadoo, and Surage. Several Indo-St. Lucians have played important political roles on the island. Ms. Gajadhar-Rock served as a government minister while Boswell Williams was a recent Governor General. Currently, Menissa Rambally, a member of the well-known family serves as a government Minister.

Currently, Indians are found in many professions and some families include doctors, lawyers, undertakers, politicians and auto-dealers. However, most of the Indians still work on the coconut and banana estates. Mr. Abel Ghiwaroo told me about the demise of the sugar industry on St. Lucia. While many of the Indians have small banana farms, others have larger estates on which they grow bananas as well as coconuts. Currently, there is much concern about the state of the banana industry because of the uncertainty about the lack of access of overseas markets. In the capital city of Castries, while many businesses are owned by Indians, but most of them are recent arrivals from India, mostly Sindhis. I went looking for the cinema owned by one of the Adjodha’s. It now a shopping mall, somewhat decrepit, owned by a Lebanese. Until ten years ago, the cinema screened Indian films to packed audiences.

Some families such the Khodras still maintain Indian customs. Roti, dhal and other Indian foods still form a major part of the diet of Indo-St.  Lucians and have also become part of the national cuisine. Overall though, there has been a decline in Indian culture. There are no native Hindus or Muslims in St. Lucia. The East Indian Friendly Society formed in the 1920's has not survived. Mr. Burai told me that in the 1940's Indian cultural performances were held at Vieux-Fort. It appears that the Holi festival died out in the 1920’s while Hosay fizzled out in the 1950’s.

As in Guyana, Trinidad and Grenada, the Presbyterian Church played a major role in the education of Indians and was very successful in the conversion of Indians in St. Lucia, as the Mortons had documented. I could not find any Presbyterians though and later found out that the Methodist church had taken over that role since the early years of this century. My boyhood days were spent at the “J.B Cropper Canadian Mission School” at Albion Front in Berbice, Guyana. Thus, I tried enquiring about the Cropper family for J.B Cropper’s father had been Protector of the Indians in St. Lucia.

I had no luck; a search at the local archives would be necessary on my next trip. I gathered that the late Rev. Roy Neehal of Trinidad was related to Mr. Ghiwaroo and others and that Reverend Neehal’s father had left Trinidad to work in St. Lucia.St_lucia_photo_1997_ms_heraldine_gajadha

Having gone to Marc, Augier, the Morne, Forrestiere and Vieux-Fort, I was able to observe Indians in all avenues of life, including rum shops and farms. At Augier, I had visited the local rum shop owned by Sylvester Peter, who told me he had dropped his surname “Mahabir.” Other members of his family told me that they liked chutney music, especially songs by Terry Gajraj. At the Castries market, almost all of the butchers were Indians who came from Marc. Everywhere, one can still see many young children with Indian features.

But there are many interracial unions and in the long run it is possible that the smaller Indian populations of St. Lucia, Grenada and Jamaica may be completely assimilated.

Many of my new-found friends have lamented that the Indian merchants who have now gone to the island do not interact with them. They now look upon the Indo-Guyanese, most of whom fled to St. Lucia during the dark years, to help revitalise “Indian culture.”

Rudalbus_1In spite of all that has been written about the “assimilation” of Indo-St. Lucians there are still accusations that they are disloyal to the country. Many Indo-St. Lucians apparently supported the Indian cricket team in 1983 when they played on the island. This sentiment is not uncommon particularly in Guyana, Trinidad and Jamaica because of a sentiment that perhaps considerations other than merit continue to ply a part in the selection of the West Indies cricket team. During my 1996 trip, I asked an Indian woman, about ninety ears old if she spoke Hindi. There was no response until my taxi-driver, Nelton Williams; an Indian translated it into patois. The answer stunned me: “What is Hindi?” I was told to seek out “Man Williams” who spoke “Indian” but he was not at home according to a friendly old Indian man, quite drunk perched backwards on a chair with a felt hat perched on his head. This conjured up more images of rural Guyana.  I found later that some of the older Indians still speak Hindi.

Although there is a lack of Indian culture, as it is known in the larger Indo-Caribbean populations, there is a considerable degree of “Indianness” still present.  In-depth scholarly work, similar to that undertaken on the Indians of St. Vincent by Dr. Arnold Thomas, is required.

Postscript :
During my 1997 trip, I phoned Mr. Boriel and he readily agreed to see me. Unfortunately, I rented a car and quick learned how treacherous it is to drive in St. Lucia. I felt the wrath of an irate taxi driver and this coupled with left-hand driving entailed that I arrived very late at Mr. Boriel’s house. He had left for one his plantations.

In early 2005, I discovered accidentally on the Internet that Mr. Boriel passed away in September 2001.

I felt an immediate sadness, compounded by the fact that I never have returned to St. Lucia.

Martin Latchana.